Despite the increasing availability of more effective treatments for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients that provide longer disease-free periods, almost all patients will experience a relapse. Managing relapse after regimens that have included a proteasome inhibitor (PI), an immunomodulatory drug (IMID), and often an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody can be challenging, but therapeutic options have greatly increased over the past decades. This review covers the current second-line therapeutic options and provides updated information on novel agents for the treatment of early relapses in MM patients.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2024;15(4):158–64)