Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma and represents the most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The majority of patients (60–70%) can nowadays be cured with first line chemo-immunotherapy (CIT), mostly a combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). The remaining 30–40% of patients with relapsing or refractory (R/R) disease have an unfavourable prognosis. Until recently, these patients could only be cured with platinum-based salvage CIT followed by high-dose chemotherapy and an autologous stem cell transplantation, but with rather disappointing outcomes. However, new and promising treatments for these patients have now found their way into clinical practice, with good response and survival rates and manageable toxicity rates. This article will briefly review the latest advances in the treatment of DLBCL in Belgium, both for newly diagnosed disease and for R/R disease. We will focus on the role of polatuzumab vedotin in first line, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in second line, tafasitamab-lenalidomide in second line or higher, and bispecific antibodies in third line or higher. New treatment algorithms, both for untreated and for R/R DLBCL, clinically oriented and adapted to the Belgian reimbursement criteria, are also presented.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2024;15(4):147–57)