Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms are increasingly seen in our daily practice, as a consequence of increased long-term cancer survivorship and an aging population. Typically, there is an overrepresentation of high-risk cytogenetics and TP53 mutations. In recent years, there have been new insights in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms, especially with regard to the role of CHIP (clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential) in patients receiving cytotoxic therapy for a malignant or non-malignant disorder. Unfortunately, prognosis seems worse in comparison to de novo AML, despite intensive induction and consolidation with allogeneic stem cell transplantation, with a high frequency of treatment-related toxicity and relapse. However, there is hope for the future with the emergence of novel therapies that could be of special interest in the context of these poor-risk leukaemias.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2020;11(6):261-7)