Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has a dismal outcome, as demonstrated by a 5-year overall survival rate of only 26%. Although a complete remission can be achieved in approximately 50% of the patients with classical chemotherapy, the chances of relapse are high. Current treatment options for relapsed or refractory AML only offer a bridge to allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation since no other curative option exists. In primary refractory patients, and patients at high risk for relapse, harnessing the power of the immune system with immunotherapy might provide a new treatment option. In this dissertation, we approached AML immunotherapy from two sides: the optimisation of TCR-based immunotherapy for AML, and of the identification of patients eligible for this type of treatment.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2022;13(4):165–7)