Despite their small size, the impact of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukaemia seems to grow with every microRNA-related publication. Aberrant expression of microRNAs and oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties of microRNAs may contribute to the biology of acute myeloid leukaemia. As we performed for miR-29b, a critical step is to identify target genes and pathways deregulated by microRNAs during leukemogenesis. We are just starting to understand the clinical impact of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukaemia and to emphasise future microRNA-targeted therapeutic strategies. These small new actors may become important clinical contributors for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2014;5(3):110–12)