Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly used as consolidation therapy in severe haematological diseases. In the post-transplantation period, the immunity of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients is impaired due to toxicity of the pre-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation treatment (chemo- and/or radiotherapy), the conditioning regimen with a reset of the immune system, and – in case of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation – the use of immunosuppressive drugs and potentially graft-versus-host-disease. This leads to a considerably increased risk of infections, with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention of infections, i.a. by revaccination, is of major importance to improve outcomes. We present the Belgian guidelines for vaccination after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, based on available data in the literature and international guidelines, taking into account the availability of vaccines and – if applicable – their reimbursement in Belgium. We describe a general vaccination schedule for post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients, indications for pre-transplant vaccination and donor vaccination and an overview of special indications, such as travel vaccinations, vaccinations of close contacts and health care workers, with recommendations for titer follow-up.
(BELG J HEMATOL 2014;5(2):44–54)