The field of myelodysplastic syndromes has entered the molecular era. New diagnostic tools such as next-generation sequencing are rapidly entering clinical practice and will change the way we diagnose and manage patients with a myelodysplastic syndrome, especially patients considered lower risk by standard diagnostic tools. The treatment of lower risk patients has not changed much since the publication of the BHS recommendations in 2013. However, important trials in lower risk patients have recently been published and will be reviewed here. Finally, the recommendations from an international expert panel for allogeneic transplantation have been published. The key points of this paper will also be discussed as well as results of recently published trials.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2018;9(2):48–56)