In the first part of these reviews, we highlighted the intricate nature of the immune response in myelodysplastic neoplasms (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It has been demonstrated that inflammation and immune cellular response may vary significantly at different stages of the diseases. Consequently, patients may present with a broad range of symptoms, from auto-inflammation to autoimmunity. Despite considerable progress in comprehending the role of immune dysregulation in MDS and MPN, immunotherapy strategies have thus far had only a marginal effect on these diseases. Nevertheless, several novel immunomodulatory drugs are currently undergoing clinical trials, which may change our clinical practice. In this part, we provide an overview of current clinical trials and the necessary strategies to better stratify patients for these innovative immunomodulatory treatments.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2023;14(4):155–69)