Recent concerns about the safety of erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) in cancer patients have led to a reformulation of the guidelines issued by NCCN, ASH/ASCO and ESMO. The goal of this review is to comment on various safety issues like mortality or thromboembolism or iron supplementation and to summarise the views of the three working groups concerning ESA treatment in cancer patients.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2012;3:88–94)