We present the case of a 68 year old woman with multiple myeloma, who developed mild persistent upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms, together with a rash and abnormal liver function tests, in the early phase post-autologous stem cell transplantation. Pathology findings were compatible with graft-versus-host disease. Local treatment with corticosteroids resulted in a durable remission of the autologous graft-versus-host disease. A literature review reveals an incidence of mild gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease in 13% of patients after autologous stem cell transplantation. Severe fatal autologous graft-versus-host disease has rarely been reported, and solely in multiple myeloma patients. In this article we discuss incidence, pathophysiology, outcome and treatment of these entities.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2016;7(2):83–6)