In Belgium, a 53-year old Caucasian man presented at the haematology consultations with weight loss and night sweats in the last six weeks. Apart from a cholecystectomy and appendectomy, he had no medical history. He had no pets; his last journey abroad was to Spain eight months ago. On physical examination, splenomegaly was noted. Blood testing revealed a microcytic anaemia (Hb 9.3g/dl), leukopenia (2.63x10E9/L) with normal formula, normal liver testing and crp of 47.9g/dl. Serologic testing for HIV, CMV, HepB, HepC, and Toxoplasma was negative. Trephine biopsy was normal. PET/CT scan demonstrated splenomegaly with high FDG-avidity. Splenectomy was performed. Small granules (amastygotes) were seen by the pathologist suggestive for Leishmaniasis. Serologic testing and PCR confirmed the diagnosis. He was subsequently treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Our patient is now in optimal condition. Earlier serologic testing for this rare tropical disease in a non-endemic region could have prevented splenectomy.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2022;13(2):92–4)