Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), also known as myelodysplastic neoplasms, are clonal myeloid disorders characterised by ineffective clonal haematopoiesis leading to peripheral blood cytopenia and a variable risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia. Even if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative option, most patients with MDS are ineligible to this procedure because of age or comorbidities. In lower-risk MDS, the main approach still aims at improving cytopenia, mainly anaemia. In higher-risk MDS, hypomethylating agents represent the standard-of-care, but are not curative. This article summarised recent developments in this disease.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2024;15(1):27–30)