Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a very heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells that are associated with cytopenias and a propensity to evolve to AML. In the recent years, significant progresses have been achieved to better understand the diversity of clinical, cytogenetic, molecular and immunological factors that are bound to the prognosis and outcome of patients with MDS. Their implementation into conventional risk stratification models should further refine patient subgroups, improve predictive value for survival and provide a next-generation classification and prognostic system for these patients, in order to assist personal treatment decision.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2021;12(1):38-46)