The treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) currently undergoes a new (r-)evolution. Real-world data like those from the LocoMMotion study have confirmed the grim outcome of MM patients who have received ≥3 treatment lines or who are refractory to the current backbone treatments that include a proteasome inhibitor, an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) and an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody.1 The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of this heavily pre-treated patient population is around four months and their overall survival barely exceeds one year. Until recently, the treatment options for this patient population were very limited and consisted mostly of retreatment with the drugs that had already been given in earlier treatment lines.2 Currently, the recently introduced T-cell redirecting therapies are completely reshaping the treatment paradigm of relapsed and refractory MM (triple class exposed and mostly triple class refractory). These therapies include CAR-T cells, bispecific antibodies and to a lesser extent antibody drug conjugates. Whereas B-Cell Maturation Antigen (or BCMA) is the most frequently targeted surface antigen, other targets include G-Protein Coupled Receptor family C group 5 member D (or GPRCD). It was therefore no surprise that the oral sessions on treatment of MM were nearly completely dedicated to T-cell redirecting therapies. In the following article, the most recent insights presented at the EHA congress in Frankfurt are discussed.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2023;14(5):216–8)