The research landscape in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) anno 2022 puts a strong focus on the optimal treatment choice in the frontline setting. In this setting, targeted therapy options have largely replaced chemoimmunotherapy as standard of care. However, with this evolution comes a new question: which patient is best treated with a continuous treatment option and who benefits most from a time-limited treatment approach? During ASH 2021, results of several studies looking at both treatment strategies have been presented, further fuelling this debate. Despite the impressive improvements in the frontline setting, a large proportion of patients will eventually relapse or develop refractoriness to the available therapies. To address this medical need, researchers continue to develop new treatment modalities. In this light, ASH 2021 featured promising results with the novel BTK-inhibitor pirtobrutinib and provided a reassuring update of the ASCEN trial evaluating acalabrutinib in the relapsed/refractory setting.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2022;13(1):11–6)