Approximately 30–40% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified (NOS), will relapse or are unable to obtain a complete remission (CR) after frontline treatment. These patients have a poor prognosis and represent a therapeutic challenge. In this article, we reviewed the recent literature to update the practice guidelines of the Belgian Hematology Society (BHS) Lymphoproliferative Disease Committee for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) DLBCL. In the first part, we will focus on first relapse and the role of CAR T-cell therapy in first and second relapse. In the second part, we will focus on novel treatment options for patients with a second or higher relapse, secondary central nervous system (CNS) relapse and high-grade lymphoma.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2023;14(4):170–7)