Human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human oncogenic virus discovered. It is endemic in some regions of the world but increasingly prevalent in our countries as globalisation is progressing. After several decades of asymptomatic carrying, approximately 2–5% of infected individuals will develop adult-T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATL). Despite significant progress in the physiopathology and therapeutic interventions, the prognosis of this rare disease is dismal. An update of classification, clinical features, diagnosis and recent treatment recommendations is outlined in this review.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2019;10(7):277–84)