Articles

Iron overload in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation children and relation to organ damage and survival

BJH - volume 9, issue 5, september 2018

V. Liberton MD, R. Colman , G. Laureys MD, PhD, V. Bordon MD, PhD, C. Dhooge MD, PhD

SUMMARY

Adult patients with high serum ferritin have an increased risk of organ toxicity and iron chelation before stem cell transplant might be an option. We report our experience in 58 paediatric patients (excluding patients with haemoglobinopathy and hyper-transfused patients) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant between 2007 and 2012. Serum ferritin pre-transplant was highly variable (mean: 932 µg/L) and related to a number of PRC transfusions. Eighteen of 58 patients had ferritin level >1000 µg/L before transplant. Eight patients suffered from transplant-related mortality. We found no correlation between transplant-related mortality and pre-transplant serum ferritin (p=0.67). Seven patients developed veno-occlusive disease, reversible in all cases. We did not find a correlation between serum ferritin and veno-occlusive disease, graft-versus-host disease or relapse. The evolution of ferritin post-transplant shows a spontaneous lowering of ferritin in the first two years after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation to normal range. An association between serum ferritin and elevated AST/ALT at 12 and 24 months was noted and follow-up concerning possible liver damage in patients with a persistently high serum ferritin is recommended. This study concludes that high serum ferritin has no influence on transplant-related mortality in children, chronically poly-transfused patients excluded. Although chelation is already used in paediatric HSCT, there is insufficient, current evidence to do so.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2018;9(5):182–7)

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