The development of new immunomodulatory therapies and their implementation in the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past years, offer new perspectives for the treatment of other plasma cell dyscrasias. Light chain amyloidosis is historically associated with a very poor prognosis, despite the small size of the monoclonal plasma cell population, due to progressive amyloid deposition in vital organs. Hence, advances in treatment are eagerly awaited. Luckily, myeloma patients are paving the way for light chain amyloidosis treatment, clearly demonstrating that immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors are capable of controlling plasma cell proliferation. Two recently published trials have shown a remarkable survival benefit with CyBorD, a bortezomib containing regimen in light chain amyloidosis, possibly setting a new standard for the treatment of this disease. In this article, we review current insights in the pathogenesis, diagnostic challenges, prognostic markers and available treatments for light chain amyloidosis.

(BELG J HEMATOL 2013;4(4): 120–126)